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Olivamineis based upon the use of small molecules, delivered transcutaneously to the skin or "trophically." Trophic is from the Greek (trophikos) pertaining to nutritive processes. Corneotrophism pertains to the delivery of nutrients through the skin's epidermis for the purpose of treating skin and providing amino acids, vitamins, and antioxidants necessary for cellular homeostasis.
Vitamins: B6 (pyridoxine) and B3 (niacinamide)
Olivamineis a combination of small molecules that are involved in cellular processes and necessary for the maintenance of healthy skin. Olivamine contains two B vitamins added for their special physiological effects. The term vitamin B6 is used to describe all biologically inter-convertible forms of pyridoxine. Vitamin B6 is an essential co-factor in numerous enzymatic reactions involved primarily in amino acid metabolism.1 In addition; vitamin B6 functions as an antioxidant by interacting with singlet molecular oxygen during oxidative stress.
Niacinamide (vitamin B3) is a precursor of the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) used to generate ATP in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Niacinamide is involved in DNA integrity and maintains phosphatidylserine membrane asymmetry to prevent cellular inflammation and phagocytosis. Current research demonstrates that niacinamide prevents the induction of caspase-8, caspase-1, and caspase-2 activities during cellular injury.2 The cytoprotectant effects of niacinamide are involved in the maintenance and preservation of cellular membranes.
Amino Acids: glycine, L-taurine, N-acetyl-L-cysteine and L-proline
There are four amino acids found in Olivamine. Glycine protects ATP-depleted cells by low affinity interactions with multimeric channel proteins. Glycine provided during ATP depletion blocked the development of membranous pores completely.3 The relationship between necrosis and an extra-cellular depletion of ATP makes its protection and restoration imperative during the pre-lethal stages of necrosis (non-programmed cell death) or early necrosis.
L-taurine can act as a direct antioxidant that scavenges or quenches oxygen free radicals intracellularly to block ROS mediated cell death. The beneficial effects of the ROS-scavenging capacity of L-taurine include attenuation of lipid peroxidation, reduction of membrane permeability, and inhibition of intracellular oxidation in different cells.4
N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant particularly against hydrogen peroxide. The hypothesis that NAC-induced free radical-signaling delays G0/G1 cells progression to S phase by regulating the cell cycle regulatory protein cyclin D1 and the free radical-scavenging enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) has been investigated. Treatment with NAC resulted in increased cellular glutathione levels indicating a shift to a more reducing environment. These results support the hypothesis that cellular redox environment regulates cellular proliferation via regulating cell cycle regulatory protein levels.5
In studies done in vivo and in vitro, L-proline was found to be the only amino acid that was involved in the stimulation of DNA synthesis.6 Further, epidermal growth factor (EGF) elicited no response without the addition of L-proline. L-Proline deficient media such as Leibovitz's L-15, Eagle's minimal essential, and Dulebecco's modified minimal essential did not induce DNA synthesis. However, using media such as Williams E, McCoy's 5A and Ham's F-12, which are rich in L-proline, there was DNA synthesis and marked proliferation.7
Hydroxytyrosol is the major component of the phenolic fraction of olives, which is known for its antioxidant properties. Hydroxytyrosol is a water and lipid-soluble molecule that is an efficient scavenger of peroxyl radicals.8 Experiments demonstrate that hydroxytyrosol effectively counteracts the cytotoxic effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in various human cellular systems. In studies using hydroxytyrosol pre-incubated cells, it was found that damage due to oxidative stress, such as lipid peroxidation and alterations of cell permeability, could be prevented and that hydroxytyrosol exerted a protective effect against H2O2 induced oxidative hemolysis.9
Olivamine also contains methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), a naturally occurring organic compound containing 34% elemental sulfur. MSM provides a bio-available form of sulfur and supports the body's ability to produce the sulfur-containing amino acids (SAA) N-acetyl-L-cysteine, methionine, cystine, and taurine.10
The ability of a material to effectively reduce oxidative stress is determined by a method called oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Olivamine has been tested to determine its ORAC value as compared to fruits and vegetables known for their antioxidant activity.
Brunswick Laboratories conducted the testing, Norton MA utilizing the COBAS Fara II centrifugal analyzer. Bilski P, Li MT, Ehrenshaft M, et al. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) and its derivatives are efficient singlet oxygen quenchers and potential fungal antioxidants. Photochem and Photobiol 2000; 71:129-34.
Maiese K, Chong ZZ. Nicotinamide: necessary nutrient emerges as a novel cytoprotectant for the brain. Trends in Pharmacol Sci 2003; 24:228-32.
Dong Z, Patel Y, Saikumar P, et al. Development of porous defects in plasma membranes of adenosine triphosphate-depleted Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and its inhibition by glycine. Lab Invest 1998; 78:657-68.
Milei J, Ferreoar R, Lleesuy S, Forcada P, et al. Reduction of reperfusion injury with preoperative rapid intravenous infusion of taurine during myocardial revascularization. Amer Heart J 1992; 123:339-45.
Menon SG, Sarsour EH, Kalen AL, et al. Superoxide signaling mediates N-acetyl-Lcysteine-induced G1 arrest: regulatory role of cyclin D1 and manganese superoxide dismutase. Cancer Res 2007; 67:6392-9.
Houck KA, Michalopoulos G. Proline is required for the stimulation of DNA synthesis in hepatocyte cultures by EFG. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol 1985; 21:121-4.
Nakamura T, Teramoto H, Tomita Y, Ichihara A. L-Proline is an essential amino aid for hepatocyte growth in culture. Biochem Biophy Res Commun 1984; 122:884-91.
Aeschbach R, Loliger J, Scott BC, et al. Antioxidant action of thymol, carvacrol 6- gingerol, zingerone, and hydroxytyrosol. Food Chem Toxic 1994; 32:31-6.
Manna C, Galletti P, Cucciolla V, et al. The protective effect of the olive oil polyphenol (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanol counteracts reactive oxygen metaboliteinduce cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. J Nutr 1997; 127:282-92.
Parcell S. Sulfur in human nutrition and applications in medicine. Altern Med Rev 2002; 7:22-44.